Hypothalamic substrates for brain stimulation-induced patterns of locomotion and escape jumps in the rat

Publication Type:

Journal Article


Brain Res, Volume 449, Number 1-2, p.294-310 (1988)

DOI Name (links to online publication)



analysis; anatomy; &; histology; Animals; AREA; Behavior; Brain; Electric Stimulation; Electrodes; Escape Reaction; Exploratory Behavior; Hypothalamic; Hypothalamus; LATERAL HYPOTHALAMUS; Locomotion; Male; mechanism; Motor Activity; Organ Specificity; p


The hypothalamic response area for electrically induced locomotion was determined using moveable electrodes and discriminant analysis as an appropriate statistical technique. At 241 out of 641 stimulated sites locomotion was induced. The distribution of locomotion sites is relatively diffuse. Discriminant analysis of both positive and negative electrode localizations yields areas with high, intermediate or low probability of inducing the response. The response is considered to be mediated by fibres of the subpallido-pedunculopontine system, which includes the mesencephalic locomotor region. Different categories of exploratory and flight-directed locomotion were distinguished, and response areas for both categories were determined. In addition the response area for escape jumps was delimited. Exploratory locomotion is mainly induced from the lateral hypothalamus, while flight-directed locomotion and escape jumps are evoked from the medial hypothalamus. The response area for exploratory locomotion reflects the lateral hypothalamic distribution of the subpallidal projection to the mesencephalic locomotor region. A diffuse substrate for flight behavior seems to occupy almost the entire medial hypothalamus. It is concluded that a locomotor subroutine subserving different behavioural mechanisms can be activated at many hypothalamic sites