Understanding stress-effects in the brain via transcriptional signal transduction pathways

Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

Neuroscience, Volume 242, p.97-109 (2013)

ISBN:

1873-7544 (Electronic)03

DOI Name (links to online publication)

10.1016/j.neuroscience.2013.03.038

Abstract:

Glucocorticoid hormones exert crucial effects on the brain in relation to physiology, endocrine regulation, mood and cognition. Their two receptor types, glucocorticoid and mineralocorticoid receptors (GR and MR), are members of the nuclear receptor superfamily and act in large measure as transcription factors. The outcome of MR/GR action on the genome depends on interaction with members from different protein families, which are of crucial importance for cross-talk with other neuronal and hormonal signals that impinge on the glucocorticoid sensitive circuitry. Relevant interacting proteins include other transcription factors that may either tether the receptor to the DNA, or that bind in the vicinity of GR and MR to tune the transcriptional response. In addition, transcriptional coregulator proteins constitute the actual signal transduction pathway to the transcription machinery. We review the current evidence for involvement of individual coregulators in GR-dependent effects on stress responses, and learning and memory. We discuss the use of in vitro and in silico tools to predict those coregulators that are of importance for particular brain processes. Finally, we discuss the potential of selective receptor modulators that may only allow a subset of all interactions, thus allowing more selective targeting of glucocorticoid-dependent processes in the brain.

16/05/2013